Ground Based Training System (GBTS)

Ground Based Training System (GBTS)

The modern concept of training is not limited to aircraft, but extends to a complete range of Ground-Based Training and Learning Systems, designed in parallel with the aircraft.


Today these systems are based on Modeling & Simulation technologies. The virtual reproduction of aircraft systems and operational use translates into high fidelity simulation and high quality, which in turn allows the simulator to be used to prepare flight sorties with great accuracy, to reduce the overall number of expensive flying hours or to concentrate them on the most important skills. The synthetic learning environment makes it possible to learn to operate and maintain aircraft while reducing overall training costs.


Leonard's Aircraft Division has over 50 years of experience in this field. Early Modeling & Simulation applications for design engineering have been transferred to the design and operation of flight training devices. Today the Division offers customers a product portfolio comprising interactive courseware, Flight Training Devices, Full Mission Simulators, mission planning and de-briefing systems, which together constitute the Ground Based Training System.


These capabilities, together with the specific experience of the Division in the training field, translate into functionalities and products fully integrated with the actual aircraft. These include academic software applications to transfer content and knowledge to students, as well as those which allow them to review study materials and assess progress.

Full Mission Simulator

Full Mission Simulators (FMS) represent the highest level of simulation available in terms of fidelity and complexity. This allows FMS to duplicate tactical scenarios for fighters and airlifters, engaging students even on the emotional and sensory dimensions.


This allows reducing the flying hours required to reach the desired proficiency, cutting costs and increasing fleet availability for operational use.



The M-346 Full Mission Simulator is a state-of-the-art simulator that delivers high performance for tactical training leading in to new generation combat aircraft.


Its characteristics include high maneuverability, formation (2-4 ship, including low, medium and high altitude, all-weather and night), in-flight refueling (all-weather and night), basic maneuvers, dogfighting, and advanced combat tactics, attack and fighter tactics. All FMS night missions are flown with actual, unmodified Night Vision Goggles (NVG).


The M-346 GBTS system cannot be considered a mere tool to reduce costs replacing the flight hours. In fact, thanks to the integration of the ground simulator with the aircraft Embedded Tactical Training Simulation (ETTS) throughout the datalink, the concept of Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) simulation can be implemented by by networking  the aircraft (Live), the simulator (Virtual) and the ETTS (Constructive) within a distributed operating environment, the so-called DMO (Distributed Mission Operations).


In concrete terms, during a DMO session, the student pilots at the simulator “see” and interact with the actual aircraft in the virtual environment, while on the aircraft the ETTS presents Multi-Function Display the tracks of the virtual aircraft and the simulators.


The last upgrade of the ETTS allows the student pilots to visualize the virtual aircraft entering their visual field through the Helmet Mounted Display.

The C-27J Full Mission Simulator is the Level C simulator supplied by the Leonardo's Aircraft Division to Italian Air Force.


The simulator is built integrating actual equipment (thus ensuring a full fidelity human-machine interface), an aeromechanical model based on actual flight test data and a six-axis motion system, which allows for a fully immersive experience for pilots in training.


The simulator is employed at the Crew Training Center in Pisa for training and recurrent training of its pilots operating with the C-27J and it has generated thousands of flight hours for training activities.



Flight Training Devices

Flight Training Devices (FTD) are part-task simulators that offer a high-quality graphic simulation of the human-machine interface but are optimized for specific tasks such as familiarisation with aircraft systems, normal and emergency procedures and tactical scenarios.


By simulating radar and weapon systems FTDs teach pilots how to manage the sensor, maximising the effectiveness of the actual flying lessons. These simulators are also used to teach general of the flight subjects, aerobatic maneuvers, formation flying, normal and emergency procedures, instrument flight (for both VFR and IFR), navigation, armament and management of self-protection systems.


Eurofighter – Enhanced Aircrew Cockpit Trainer (E-ACPT)

The Eurofighter E-ACPT FTD offers Eurofighter pilots the best possible training in both initial and recurrent training.

 The system includes a faithful reproduction the aircraft cockpit, with virtual touch-screen operated multifunction displays driven by an aeromechanical simulation model based on actual flight test data.

 The use of computer-generated adversary forces and ability to network with other simulators under the High Level Architecture (HLA) protocol translates into additional tactical training opportunities.


The certified simulator also allows pilots to fly many emergency situations.



Interactive Coursewares

Interactive Coursewares are computer applications designed to transfer course matter to students in the classroom. Students can learn aircraft systems and procedures interactively, supervised by an instructor or in self-paced independent study sessions. The learning path is managed and recorded by a Learning Management System, which also includes dedicated modules that assist instructors in evaluating students.


M-346 CBT / CAI  Classroom

The M-346 Computer Aided Instruction/Computer Based Training covers topics including advanced aerodynamics, tactical navigation, aeronautical systems, normal and emergency procedures.

Each predefined lesson covers a specific system or aircraft activity. After each lesson students are offered revision and self-test sessions that allow them to assess what has been learned and, if necessary, go over topic again.

The teaching goals are achieved by using a broad range of media, from static and dynamic 2D or 3D graphs to interactive system diagrams and from 3D interactive models to audio text commentary. The systems are carefully studied to maximise learning in each individual module.




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